Involvement Reduces Risk of Smoking in Their Adolescents
divorced and/or separated households are more likely to smoke than
their peers from intact families. The results of this study suggest
that involvement with nonresident fathers decreases the likelihood
that adolescents will begin smoking on a regular basis.
According to a
study published in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior,
24% of 12th graders reported in a survey that they had smoked within
the past 30 days, and 16% said that they smoke on a daily basis.
Previous studies have shown that adolescents from divorced and/or
separated households are more likely to smoke than their peers from
intact families. However, few studies have addressed the factors
that may help to minimize this risk, such as the involvement of
nonresident fathers in divorced and/or separated households. For
this study, the researchers aimed to investigate nonresident father
involvement more closely. According to the study, the results
suggest that involvement with nonresident fathers decreases the
likelihood that adolescents will begin smoking on a regular basis.
In addition, the researchers found that adolescents whose
nonresident fathers model smoking behaviors have an increased
likelihood of starting to smoke on a regular basis. While children
who experience parental divorce or separation are somewhat at a
disadvantage, some of the long-term effects on these children are
avoidable and can be offset by a number of resources, including the
active involvement of nonresident parents. 
Fathersí Involvement and Adolescentsí Smoking, Journal of Health and
Social Behavior, Vol. 47, March 2006, pp. 32-46.